As many as 140 million women around the world are cut; over 101 million of them live in Africa. Kenya has banned the practice but it's still common in some communities - particularly in the northeast of the country. According to recent surveys, the estimated prevalence of FGM in Kenyan females (ages 15 to 49) is 27.1 per cent, which is a drop of 10 per cent from 10 years previously. Girls are usually cut at puberty, but the age is declining in an apparent effort by communities to escape detection.
The reasons for parents wanting their daughters to be cut are mostly cultural. In many cultures in Northern, Eastern and Western Africa, being cut is a rite of passage for young girls and improves their chances of getting married. Others think that it's more hygienic and that a girl or woman should be flat, rigid and dry. Religious beliefs also play a role. Some Christian and Muslim communities believe that the cut is related to teachings of their religions.
There are four different types of FGC. In the first two, all or a part of the clitoris is removed. With the third type, which is also called 'infibulation', all of the clitoris and the inner and outer labia are removed. The fourth type is a variation of type 3, but goes one step further. Parts of the vagina may be stitched shut or tightened by using chemicals. Most of the cut women fall into categories 1 and 2; type 3 and 4 are most common in East Africa.
FGM can be dangerous and cause lifelong problems for the woman who has been cut. If the procedure is not done in a clean environment with clean medical tools, serious infections can be the result. They can even kill a girl or woman.
Once the wounds are healed, there can be other problems. Women can have recurring urinary tract and vaginal infections, problems when menstruating, pain during sex and chronic pain in general. Being cut might make women more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well. Incontinence and cysts are common, too. FGM can also cause infertility.
And during childbirth, being cut is a real risk for both the baby and the mother. With type 3 and 4 FGM, the vagina can be too tight to allow the baby to pass through it. Prolonged, obstructed labour can cause death of the baby and fistulas in the mother. A fistula is a hole between the bladder and the vagina or the anus and the vagina. Fistulas lead to incontinence and other medical and social consequences.
When having sex for the first time, or before giving birth, women who have had type 3 or 4 FGM have to be cut open in order for the penis to be able to enter the vagina, or for the baby to come out. Afterwards, the vagina is often stitched shut again. This is called 'reinfibulation'.
For women who have been stitched shut, it can be hard to enjoy sex. The opening that is left is very small for penis to enter without pain. Nevertheless, some women report having a normal and enjoyable sex life even with this kind of cut.
For the other FGM categories, it will be harder to reach orgasm than for women who haven't been cut, because many women can get an orgasm most easily by stimulating the clitoris. But that doesn't mean that if you don't have an external clitoris, you won't be able to have an orgasm. The outer part of the clitoris is only a small part of a much bigger organ. With an understanding and patient partner, you should be able to have an orgasm. It's a matter of trying what you like and what makes you feel good.
There is a procedure called 'defibulation' or 'deinfibulation'. It is a surgery that reopens the vagina of women with type 3 and 4 FGM, restoring the vagina to its normal size. It might also mean some of the scar tissue is removed and the labia is restored.
There are even new techniques to restore the clitoris. Tissues of the clitoris from inside the vagina can be used to make a new clitoris on the outside. This is not done very often yet, though.
One of the myths around FGM makes people believe that the cut will actually enhance a woman's fertility and promote child survival. Another myth claims that cutting a girl will cure or prevent STDs like gonorrhea.
It is believed that FGM will keep a girl or woman from having sex before marriage and that it increases a man's pleasure.